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Pewayang is art

Pewayangan is not ofTheatre Arts." 




          So, conventions, methods, and approaches to study and work on Art pewayangan to be distinguished by convention, methods, and approaches to study, and work on Theatre Arts. Their opinions are legitimate. As effective and valid opinions stating that instead Dramatic Arts Theatre, but the Literary Arts. Assessment or study of Theatre Arts are beyond the conventions and literary approach, but remained within the study of art - The art which one? Is not literature, including drama, as well as art, literary art? Some argue that the Arts Drama and Theatre Arts, including the field of Fine Arts. While others argue that the Arts including Art Arsitekstur field. There is the impression that the puppet Arts equated or confused with puppetry art, so that at some universities use the name of the Department of Art puppetry, not the Department of puppet. Opinions should be supported by reasons and concepts clear, and obvious reference so as not to cause any confusion and obscurity.

In this paper, Art pewayangan included as a performance art. He is a Theatre Arts, 'Traditional Theatre' which will always have the reform and transformation as well as the traditional arts of others, and also art, contemporary art, including 'Contemporary Theatre'. Traditional art is not art that has been stagnant, raw, and frozen. He continues to experience growth or even a change in tune with the transformation in all sectors, without exception the field of culture and art, particularly


 Art pewayangan or pewayangan of art. But on the contrary, the arts can enrich the tradition of modern art (see Renda 1983:3). Thus, the concept of Theatre Arts is not only able to contribute to the development of puppet art, but also can to be practice  into it.
Theatre is the product of a process of creation of dramatic art into the art theater, or can be abbreviated to 'the theater'. As the theater, Theatre 
existence refers to the 'formula dramaturgy'. The term 'dramaturgy' itself free of the Dutch language 'dramaturgie', meaning the doctrine of the dramatic arts (Leer van de dramatische Kunst), or from English 'dramaturgy', meaning art or technique of writing drama and presentation in the form of theater. In short can be called 'the art of theater "(the art of the theater) (Harymawan 1988: iii).
Safian Hussain et al. in Literature Glossary Glossary (1988:69) mentions that 'dramaturgy' is a dramatic composition or dramatic art, namely technical elements used in the writing of drama. Elements of sound and motion elements lakuan or are two important elements among other important elements in the drama. And this is what distinguishes between the technique of writing drama or play with other literary types, namely prose (novels or short stories) and poetry.


Dramaturgy approach (approache dramaturgique), which in France pioneered and developed by Jacques Scherer, aims to explain how a playwright uses the framework of a specific form and specific procedures in writing (Scherer 1980:5, in Bachmid 1990:26).

The meaning of formulas or 'formula dramaturgy' above is a process (penjadian) theater that includes 4M, ie

(1) imagining (in the form of ideas); (2) Creating or Writing (in the form of dramatic scripts, dramatic text, or text story);
(3) Exhibiting or shew (in the form of text or art theater performances); and
(4) Watching, Watching (possibly in the form of comments, reviews, reviews, criticism, study, or research).
The difference of the term 'drama' and 'theater', as the creative process of art, can be seen in pairs the following characteristics (see Tennyson 1967:1; Satoto 1991:6-25).
    
* Drama theater, puppet

    * Play (plays, theatrical) performance (performances, performances)
    * Script (a script, can form a sketch), production (production)
    * Dramatic text (dramatic text) Perfomance text (show text)
    * Author (author) direction (director, dalang) caracter (character) actor / actress, dalang (played by pewayangan)
    * Creation (creation) interpretation (interpretations, by a puppeteer)
    * Theory (theory) the implementation (implementation)





Based on the comparison above, it appears that
(1) drama is more of a story that has not staged;
(2) a script or a play script (whatever they may be) that have not been produced;
(3) dramatic text which still must obtain a level of perfection in the text show, so that all types of performing arts should be the context with the public (audience);
(4) the creation, ideas, or ideas the author (in script plays) that within certain limits still must be interpreted by the director (puppeteer) and all theater workers to mementaskannya;
(5) of the characters in dramatic texts, or actors in performances that are still empty text must obtain the function and role (by the director or the puppeteer), so that every character in every story has the characteristics of each.

III
Now, both conceptually, especially when seen from the form or shape, style, cultivating, and or pementasannya, we are increasingly difficult to distinguish and which defines a work of art the most entitled to claim or called classical theater, traditional theater, folk theater, theater regional, local theater, national theater, theater of Indonesia, western theater, modern theater, or contemporary theater. It happened because the kinds of theater are equally developed and / or paradigm shift in tune with the transformation and globalization of culture and art. Modern theater and contemporary theater that some people suggest the inclusion of the convention (from) the West, among others, the convention of writing the play script, while not using traditional theater. Which is also called the noble civilization of art, which it is said, must be conserved (what?). Meanwhile, the value system itself had been developed and / or changes. Javanese Wayang Kulit Purwa, for example, is often called traditional theater adiluhung type that should be conserved (ass: philosophy, functions, conventions, doll form, shape, working on, or style pergelarannya, or all?). If all that's true, then the puppet art has been to deny the nature of art itself is creative and innovative.




In the region of Indonesia, we know various types of theatrical art, commonly called 'traditional theater' (already mentradisi), 'theater people' (as close to the people), or 'regional theater' (distinctively local.) Conventionally, local theater is limited to the performing arts that have a certain characteristic regions. Types of theater that is not characterized by regionalism is the Western theater. The main difference between the Western theater and the theater area of ​​Indonesia is always a play script written in the Western theater productions (Bandem & Murgiyanto, 1996:10).

It should be questioned about the characteristics of certain regions where?
Language, style, garapnya, what geographical? Similarly, in reality now, there is a modern theater that is assumed to Western theater but not using a script written plays, but with improvisation, improvisation and mini words or sketches, commonly called a mini theater or theater word primitive. For example, play Bib Bob (Renda), and play RE (Akhudiat).

Conversely, there are regional theater that uses a script written plays, and worked on the basis of Western conventions. For example Kethoprak Glinding in Solo; kethoprak, wayang, or shadow puppets are staged and / or aired on television, or

performed 'in order'. Other examples are the traditional arts that is experimental or exploratory spirit. What is wrong if the theater district or the traditional type of puppet theater use script written plays, translated into the language or not nondaerah, and worked on theatrical conventions (the West assumed?).

Such events are often also carried out for the Western theater is translated into local languages
​​in Indonesia, worked on the basis of conventions, style, and other forms, or the spirit of regional theater in Indonesia. Thus, regional characteristics (including local languages), script writing plays, and conventions used, in development now, is not accurate enough as a differentiator between the Regional Theatres (in Indonesia), and Theatre West (not always the same with non-Indonesian) , or Theatre of Traditional and Modern Theatre.

Some examples of types of folk theater, regional theater, or a traditional theater in Indonesia are:
Nobility (North Sumatra); Randai (West Sumatra); Dermuluk (South Sumatra); Makyong, Mendu (Riau, West Kalimantan); Mamanda (South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan); Ubrug, Longser,

Bonjet (West Java); Lenong, Mask , traders (Batawi); Mansres (Indramayu); Sintren (Cirebon); Kethoprak (Yogya, Solo, Central Java, East Java); Wayang (Leather or Purwa, People, Masks, Marionette, Sungging, Gedog, roe Kencana, Menak; Klitik or Krucil, Struggle Leather, Leather Kancil, Potehi, China, or Thithi, Beber, Madya, Tasripin, torch, spacecraft, Pancasila, Revelation) is spread almost all over Java; Dadung Awuk (Yogya); Kuda Lumping (Yogya, Solo, Central Java, Ponorogo, East Java); Srandul (Central Java, East Java); Ludrug, Kentrung (East Java); Drama Gong, Gambuh, Arja, Mask, Prembon (Bali); Mask Dalang (Klaten, Central Java, East Java ); Mask (West Java, Central Java, East Java and Madura); Panji (West Java, Central Java, East Java) (Satoto 1991:121-189).
Based on the examples above, it is clear that the art of puppet theater has the type most widely than those owned by other traditional theatrical arts. The number of types of puppet theater and groupings each observer could have been different. Kesamaanya, the kinds of puppet theater, respectively, have their own specifications and characteristics. The type and variety of puppet theater that will continue to grow and increase in number.

IV


Why does the type and variety of puppet arts still continue to experience growth, even change, both in quantity and quality of his art when viewed in terms of the relevant insights puppet artists, conventions, methods, approaches, styles, and the cultivation techniques used in the process of staging want to be pewayangan.
If the process of development puppets will continue without a hitch, what threats or sanctions, then it indicates that
(1) Art pewayanagan shows, including puppetry art (Art directing Plus), Karawitan Art / Music (good music or sound), and Dance (spatial movement or lakuan) which conventionally are major components in addition to other important components Art puppet that build community, not a traditional art that stagnant, static, raw, and frozen, but dynamic and in tune with the development of community dynamics puppet as its public, without sacrificing the essence of Art puppet;
(2) The lovers and observers of puppets, guidance as puppets, puppet managers, thinkers puppets, puppet critic, researcher puppets, puppets and people in general as the public, not the traditional people who fanatical will-establishment, while the generation of pewayangan  artists to feel restless and agitated against build it

Gundono Slamet, S. Kar., For example, a young puppeteer removable fat nan STSI Surakarta, feel restless and anxious to see tight bond reliability of tradition, a handcuff grip-grip his artistic creativity (Sanggit). He tried to apply the conventions of theatrical art has ever received, digaulinya, and dihayatinya into the staging Puppet Suketnya.

Wayang Kulit of pewayanang  Purwa that have symbolic meaning and characteristics of raw, black and white was replaced with the dolls from Suket (grass, or mendong) which can be interpreted symbolically simplicity. People who face Karna Karna to clarify the attitude towards the Pandavas, especially Mother Kunthi Bharatayudha War, did not have to Krishna and Harjuna, but could Werkudara. Logically Werkudara more sense because it is quite possible to be irresolute or revenge for deaths due to guns Kunta Gatutkaca Danu released Karna Wijaya, Werkudara own brother, sons of my mother with Mrs. Kunthi.

Appearance in the world of fiction and nonfiction Puppet structure Suket Gundono feels more theatrical and artistic than the scene Limbukan and Goro-Goro some mastermind who recently became the arena of excessive veneration of the

responders, or who sponsored the funding pergelarannya, instead going harassment of workers puppet theater, and audience choice, in order to grab market share.

Another example, staging puppet Nggremeng Gundono in alap-alapan Surtikanthi a play by Goenawan Mohamad. There are no puppets, no gamelan (traditional). Gundono not the mastermind of authoritarian and single interpreter as usual Purwa Wayang Kulit performance. Puppet theater Nggremeng all workers can interpret the play in accordance with the insight and appreciation of each power. Thus, the meaning of the play, as a work of fiction, can have various interpretations, such as what was raised in the theory of deconstruction or postmodernism (Culler 1983). All workers Nggremeng Puppet theater also serves as a player, voice impersonator gamelan (pengrawit), even as the mastermind though. They can relax eat, drink, smoking and joking about things that are actual and context with current social, political, economic, legal, and defense that is becoming actual issues. Food, beverages, and cigarettes were scattered in front of the players, ready to be a model or puppet wayangnya. Gondo Gundono followed his teacher, that the puppet story as a work of fiction can be visualized in nonfiction, construed, or interpreted as a variety, even the interpretation or meaning crazy though (postmodernism).

V


Based on what has been stated above, it can be concluded that the contribution and the implementation of the concept art of shadow puppet theater on the development of art can be related below.

First, the structure of the theatrics, such as components puppeteer and puppetry arts (film director and directing techniques); character (figure), engineering character, actor and acting technique (the shadow puppets made by the mastermind of Sabet and conversation); dialogue (conversation, the puppet man performed by the cast), the structure of space (the shadow puppets, tree bar and emblem color micro-and macrocosm), and the structure of time (pathet, pengaluran, and pengadegan); mempotensikan all workers in a professional puppet theater and proportional (or a gamelan musician, wirasuara, stage manager, sound designer, lighting designer, stylist property or equipment, etc.) so that their creativity can be rewarded professionally and proportionately based on the results of their collective work with the mastermind, that is, not merely to obtain a reward from the puppeteer.

Second, the problem of interpretation of the play, Sanggit, and staging techniques. Dalang is not the only source of the interpreter and creator of the play, but also all workers puppet theater. For this purpose, in addition to puppeteer, puppet theater every worker should always increase the insight, the power of appreciation, and the creativity of art puppets and puppetry art as an art collective.

Third, the need assessment and ongoing research on the community puppets (including spectators, observers, observer, critic, researcher, and guidance as) as its public, because development tends to be more heterogeneous.
Fourth, the problem of performing arts management, particularly management of traditional art, in this case purwa Javanese shadow puppet performance, in general is still an individual company or industry in which the puppeteer as the sole equity owner and sole leader as an employer who has the sole authority. While the workers (crew) shadow puppet theater are his workers. These conditions can be reviewed, conducted research, and the best solution found so beneficial to all parties concerned with leather puppet prototype Java as an art collective and complex proportional and professional ..
Fifth, it is necessary, important, and urgent immediately sought and found the concept or theory of puppet art or art of puppetry, especially the cultivation techniques and / or style of puppet performances, for the sake of progress and development of puppet art itself.

Sixth, art criticism, especially criticism puppet art and / or the art of puppetry, not only needs to be institutionalized, but also need to get a decent portion and the opportunity to perform in accordance with the competencies critical critic, and the nature, meaning, and function of criticism.

DR. H. Soediro Satoto

REFERENCES
    Bachmid, Talha, 1990. The spirit of 'Dérision' in Contemporary Drama: A Review of comparative Two The play "vessels-vessels," Works arifin C Noer and "Rhino-Rhinoceros" The work of Eugène Ionesco. Dissertation. Faculty of Graduate UI Jakarta. Not yet published.
    Bandem, I Made & Sal Murgiyanto. 1996. Regional Theatre of Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka Culture.
    Culler, Jonathan. 1983. Theory and Criticism after structuralism. London, Melbourne and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Harymawan, RMA. 1988. Dramaturgy. Bandung: CV Rosda.
    Hussain, Safian et al., 1996. Glossary Glossary Literature. Kuala Lumpur: Language and Literature Board of Education Malaysia's Independence.

    
Renda. 1983. Considering the tradition. Jakarta: PT Gramedia.

    
Satoto, Soediro. 1991a. Drama Assessment I. Surakarta: Eleven March University Press.
    _____________ 1991b. Drama Assessment II. Surakarta: Eleven March University Press.
    _____________ 1984. Wayang Kulit Purwa: Meaning and Structure Dramatiknya. Research. Yogyakarta: Project Javanologi RI Department of Education.
    ______________ 1998. Characters and characterizations in Caturlogi Drama "Orchestra Madun" Work Arifin C. Noer. Dissertation. UI Graduate Program in Jakarta. Will be published.
    ______________ 1999a. Theatre Indonesia. Papers. Presented in Forum National Symposium. In the framework of the Festival and MSPI Scientific Meeting 1999 on December 9 to 14 September 1999, at Tirtagangga Karangasem Bali.

    
_______________ 1999b. Looking for the Reform Era Format puppetry. Solopos loaded on September 30, 1999, page 4.




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